• Category Archives: productivity

REPL Driven Development

When I describe my current workflow I use the TLA RDD, which is short for REPL Driven Development. I’ve been using REPL Driven Development for all of my production work for awhile now, and I find it to be the most effective workflow I’ve ever used. RDD differs greatly from any workflow I’ve used in the past, and (despite my belief that it’s superior) I’ve often had trouble concisely describing what makes the workflow so productive. This entry is an attempt to describe what I consider RDD to be, and to demonstrate why I find it the most effective way to work.

RDD Cycle

First, I’d like to address the TLA RDD. I use the term RDD because I’m relying on the REPL to drive my development. More specifically, when I’m developing, I create an s-expression that I believe will solve my problem at hand. Once I’m satisfied with my s-expression, I send that s-expression to the REPL for immediate evaluation. The result of sending an s-expression can either be a value that I manually inspect, or it can be a change to a running application. Either way, I’ll look at the result, determine if the problem is solved, and repeat the process of crafting an s-expression, sending it to the REPL, and evaluating the result.

If that isn’t clear, hopefully the video below demonstrates what I’m talking about.

If you’re unfamiliar with RDD, the previous video might leave you wondering: What’s so impressive about RDD? To answer that question, I think it’s worth making explicit what the video is: an example of a running application that needs to change, a change taking place, and verification that the application runs as desired. The video demonstrates change and verification; what makes RDD so effective to me is what’s missing: (a) restarting the application, (b) running something other than the application to verify behavior, and (c) moving out of the source to execute arbitrary code. Eliminating those 3 steps allows me to focus on what’s important, writing and running code that will be executed in production.


I’ve found that, while writing software, getting feedback is the single largest time thief. Specifically, there are two types of feedback that I want to get as quickly as possible: (1) Is my application doing what I believe it is? (2) What does this arbitrary code return when executed? I believe the above video demonstrates how RDD can significantly reduce the time needed to answer both of those questions.

In my career I’ve spent significant time writing applications in C#, Ruby, & Java. While working in C# and Java, if I wanted to make and verify (in the application) any non-trivial change to an application, I would need to stop the application, rebuild/recompile, & restart the application. I found the slowness of this feedback loop to be unacceptable, and wholeheartedly embraced tools such as NUnit and JUnit.

I’ve never been as enamored with TDD as some of my peers; regardless, I absolutely endorsed it. The Design aspect of TDD was never that enticing to me, but tests did allow me to get feedback at a significantly superior pace. Tests also provide another benefit while working with C# & Java: They’re the poorest man’s REPL. Need to execute some arbitrary code? Write a test, that you know you’re going to immediately delete, and execute away. Of course, tests have other pros and cons. At this moment I’m limiting my discussion around tests to the context of rapid feedback, but I’ll address TDD & RDD later in this entry.

Ruby provided a more effective workflow (technically, Rails provided a more effective workflow). Rails applications I worked on were similar to my RDD experience: I was able to make changes to a running application, refresh a webpage and see the result of the new behavior. Ruby also provided a REPL, but I always ran the REPL external to my editor (I knew of no other option). This workflow was the closest, in terms of efficiency, that I’ve ever felt to what I have with RDD; however, there are some minor differences that do add up to an inferior experience: (a) having to switch out of a source file to execute arbitrary code is an unnecessary nuisance and (b) refreshing a webpage destroys any client side state that you’ve built up. I have no idea if Ruby now has editor & repl integration, if it does, then it’s likely on par with the experience I have now.


  • It’s important to distinguish between two meanings of “REPL” – one is a window that you type forms into for immediate evaluation; the other is the process that sits behind it and which you can interact with from not only REPL windows but also from editor windows, debugger windows, the program’s user interface, etc.
  • It’s important to distinguish between REPL-based development and REPL-driven development:
    • REPL-based development doesn’t impose an order on what you do. It can be used with TDD or without TDD. It can be used with top-down, bottom-up, outside-in and inside-out approaches, and mixtures of them.
    • REPL-driven development seems to be about “noodling in the REPL window” and later moving things across to editor buffers (and so source files) as and when you are happy with things. I think it’s fair to say that this is REPL-based development using a series of mini-spikes. I think people are using this with a bottom-up approach, but I suspect it can be used with other approaches too.

— Simon Katz

I like Simon’s description, but I don’t believe that we need to break things down to two different TLAs. Quite simply, (sadly) I don’t think enough people are developing in this way, and the additional specification causes a bit of confusion among people who aren’t familiar with RDD. However, Simon’s description is so spot on I felt the need to describe why I’m choosing to ignore his classifications.


RDD and TDD are not in direct conflict with each other. As Simon notes above, you can do TDD backed by a REPL. Many popular testing frameworks have editor specific libraries that provide immediate feedback through REPL interaction.

When working on a feature, the short term goal is to have it working in the application as fast as possible. Arbitrary execution, live changes, and only writing what you need are 3 things that can help you complete that short term goal as fast as possible. The video above is the best example I have of how you go from a feature request to software that does what you want in the smallest amount of time. In the video, I only leave the buffer to verify that the application works as intended. If the short term goal was the only goal, RDD without writing tests would likely be the solution. However, we all know that that are many other goals in software. Good design is obviously important. If you think tests give you better design, then you should probably mix both TDD & RDD. Preventing regression is also important, and that can be accomplished by writing tests after you have a working feature that you’re satisfied with. Regression tests are great for giving confidence that a feature works as intended and will continue to in the future.

REPL Driven Development doesn’t need to replace your current workflow, it can also be used to extend your existing TDD workflow.

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Email twice. Four months later

It’s been just over four months since I posted about my experiment, Email. Twice daily. No more, no less. where I shared my plans to restrict myself to checking email only twice a day at designated times. In the post, I had hinted at sharing my lessons months later. So, it’s time to throw my dirty laundry in the street and expose myself.

First off.. the brutal truth. It’s really fucking hard to maintain this. Habits are nearly as hard to make as they are to break. I suspect that I honor my rule 2-3 days each week and it’s completely inconsistent the remainder. Usually, I find myself looking at email at 8:30am and have to slap myself and yell, “what are you doing?!!?”

Guilt sinks in and I hit ⌘-q. Problem solved… for a little while.

So, what has lead to this. Well, one of the biggest hurdles has been that one of our largest clients is now focused more in the United Kingdom. Luckily, I’m an early-morning person, but this means that my 10am PDT rule wouldn’t have me checking for their precious emails until 6pm GMT their time. Not exactly acceptable. So, I’ve been more flexible in the mornings and responding to emails as early as 5-6am PDT. However, I realize that I’m cheating myself of previous focus time and need to recalibrate my email windows.

Given these new constraints, I’m now trying 8:30am and 2:30pm as my primary email times.

I’m curious how this has been working out for you…

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Email. Twice daily. No more, no less.

On a recent trip to Las Vegas, I picked up The Four Hour Workweek for my Amazon Kindle to read on my flight. When I came back from my short vacation, I decided that I was going to change how I approach email on a daily basis. In my position, I receive a lot of business-related emails on a daily basis, whether that be from employees, clients, or potential clients. A typical day would consist of me trying to get a few tasks done while keeping an eye on any new requests. This resulted in a lot of context-switching and my days were extremely fragmented. Our team had started an experiment where we’d track all of our time throughout the day on printout. Our goal was to log all of our start/stop times for each activity and also capture each interruption within those time windows. After just a few days of doing this, I was noticing how much time was being spent on emails each day. I also noticed that it was rare to have a full hour of uninterrupted work on a single activity. Aside from distractions that you’d typically find in an office environment, email was keeping me from attaining the level of focus that I was seeking on my work…

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